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Practice and Reflections on Purchasing Management in Colleges and Universities under the Background of the "Release Management Service" Reform
来源： 中国政府采购报 【 打印 】 09:30, December 27, 2019 Source: China Government Procurement News [ Print ]
■ Dai Yongmei
“放管服”改革的不断深化，对高校采购管理提出了更高要求。 At present, the reform of the government procurement field and the "decentralization of service" reform continue to deepen, and higher requirements have been placed on the procurement management of universities. An important criterion for judging the implementation of the "decentralized management service" reform in the field of university procurement is whether procurement really brings convenience to users and improves quality and efficiency. From the perspective of university procurement practice, the implementation of the "decentralized management service" reform is to change the traditional management model and system, change the concept, improve services, and make it more suitable for development needs. In this sense, the implementation process of the "decentralization of service" reform is also a process of adjusting and reallocating the original "management" part. The essence of "decentralization" is to decentralize some of the power of the original management department to users, "serving" It is a change of thinking, multiple transposition thinking, which really provides convenience to users in the process of policy formulation and implementation. Due to the particularity of the system model, procurement targets, and purchaser's needs, the procurement management of colleges and universities must not only comply with government procurement laws and regulations, but also meet the actual needs of teaching and scientific research in colleges and universities. Based on the current status of domestic university procurement management, Nanjing University has carried out useful attempts and explorations around the requirements of strengthening the main responsibility of purchasers in combination with the actual situation of the university.
Current Situation of Purchasing Management in Universities
In more than a decade, the legal system of government procurement has changed. The process of constructing the government procurement legal system is also a process of the development of procurement work in accordance with laws, regulations, and regulations. In the process of the government procurement policy and regulation system spiraling up, it is full of expectations for the procurement department to keep pace with the times and keep up with the situation. In the meantime, the procurement management of colleges and universities has experienced a development stage from disorder to order, from decentralization to centralization, and from centralization to independence. The work has obvious characteristics and faces many practical difficulties.
(I) Management Department
11 月，笔者对国内 39 所 985 高校采购部门的设置情况进行了调研（见图 1 ）。 In November 2019 , the author conducted a survey on the setting of procurement departments of 39 domestic 985 universities (see Figure 1 ). 23 所高校（占比达 59% ）已独立建制，尚有 4 所学校未实现归口管理， 10 所高校的采购部门挂靠在财务、资产或实验室处，有两所高校的采购部门与实验室处合署办公。 Among them, 23 colleges and universities (accounting for 59% ) have been established independently. Four colleges have not implemented centralized management. The procurement department of 10 colleges is linked to the finance, asset or laboratory department, and the procurement department of two colleges and universities. Co-located with the laboratory.
In terms of staffing, in addition to Jilin University, Southwest University, Wuhan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University and other subordinate colleges and universities, the staffing department is generally facing difficulties such as tight staff, urgent tasks and heavy burdens. The source of the staff is diversified, and a large proportion of personnel are transferred from the finance, asset, laboratory, discipline inspection commission and other departments. “人财物”相关岗位而来，大多数在任期届满前后就会被换岗交流；而一线的工作人员，其轮岗的频率相对较低。 The heads of the purchasing department are from positions related to "people, property, and property" in colleges and universities, and most of them will be changed and exchanged before and after the term expires; front-line workers have relatively low frequency of rotation.
On the whole, the procurement management models of colleges and universities have both commonalities and great differences. “统一领导、分级采购、分事行权”，即所有实现归口管理的高校都有一个领导小组来统一负责高校采购工作，领导小组的名称各不相同；基本按照“学校+ 职能部门 + 院系”实现分级管理，部分高校还划分了更多层级；领导小组、职能部门和院系按照划定的职权分别行使其职责。 The common point is expressed as "unified leadership, hierarchical procurement, and division of authority", that is, all colleges and universities that implement centralized management have a leading group to be responsible for the procurement of colleges and universities. The names of the leading groups are different; basically according to "school + function "Department + department" achieves hierarchical management, and some colleges and universities have also divided more levels; the leading group, functional department and department respectively perform their duties according to the assigned powers. The biggest difference is reflected in the scope of responsibilities of each procurement management department. Some procurement management departments are responsible for all procurement work of the school, some only complete procurement matters above the school's bidding procurement limit, and some are from demand justification, bidding organization, and contract signing. The implementation of the entire process management to performance acceptance. The difference in the scope of responsibilities is caused by the differences in the management systems of universities, on the other hand, it also reflects the lack of authority and guidance from higher authorities, and the understanding and demarcation of procurement functions by universities is not completely clear.
(Two) work characteristics
From the perspective of the business content of the procurement work in colleges and universities, the following characteristics are generally presented: First, the business content is both professional and single. “采购”二字展开。 Professional means that all work is guided by a set of legal systems; single, that is, all business activities are carried out around the word "procurement". Second, the procedures are in accordance with laws and regulations. Basically, each process is "according to the plan" and has limited flexibility. Third, there are multiple sources of funds, including state appropriations, competitive funds, social donations, etc., but the proportion of funds within the scope of budget management is high, that is, most of them are included in government procurement management. Fourth, the procurement content is rich. The procurement department of the university must purchase not only sophisticated instruments and equipment for scientific researchers, but also faculty welfare, bulk supplies and other daily necessities. Fifth, the process management is complicated. In the past ten years, the Ministry of Finance has issued a number of normative documents. If you add the institutional documents and local policies of other ministries and commissions, the estimated number of policy documents is over one hundred, which shows the complexity. Sixth, the needs of procurement entities are "clear" and the "directivity" of the procurement needs of scientific research personnel is strong, which is exactly what government procurement does not advocate.
(Three) facing difficulties
“放管服”改革精神落实过程中，高校采购管理者面临的困难和挑战有增无减：政策调整快、规范化要求高；高校采购资金来源多、预算下达晚等决定了每年留给采购部门的采购时间只有半年左右，在人手紧张的情况下如何按规完成高质量采购，是高校采购管理者一直需要克服的难题；《政府采购法》《招标投标法》的两法并行，也让采购管理者无所适从；各类政策文件接踵而至，但科研仪器设备“放管服”改革中关于“科研仪器设备”“科研急需”的定义和权威解读始终缺失，高校采购管理者只能“摸着石头过河”、如履薄冰；高校采购部门在高校中的定位多为服务保障，既处于“中心”之外，也奠定了“唱黑脸、背黑锅、中黑枪”的角色基础。 With the continuous deepening of government procurement reform and the implementation of the spirit of “decentralization and management” reform, the difficulties and challenges faced by university procurement managers have continued unabated: fast policy adjustments, high standardization requirements, multiple sources of university procurement funds, late budget release, etc. It determines that the procurement time that is left to the procurement department is only about half a year. How to complete high-quality procurement in accordance with regulations under the situation of tight staffing is a problem that college procurement managers have to overcome; the "Government Procurement Law" and the "Tendering and Bidding Law" The parallelism of the two methods has also left procurement managers at a loss; various policy documents followed, but the definition and authoritative interpretation of “scientific research equipment” and “urgently needed scientific research” in the reform of scientific research equipment “decentralization services” have always been missing, and university procurement Managers can only “cross the river by feeling the stones”, such as walking on thin ice; the positioning of college procurement departments in colleges and universities is mostly a service guarantee, which is not only outside the “center”, but also has the role of “singing a black face, carrying a black pot, and a black gun” basis.
Thoughts on Purchasing Management in Universities
The equilateral triangle theory in management theory states that if an organization or an individual is to be held accountable, it should be given matching powers and equivalent benefits. Only when the three edges are equal can the enthusiasm of the organization or individual be fully mobilized; the ability to match the three edges can make the triangle more stable. “放管服”改革要求的过程中，实现权责利平衡是高校采购管理者必须关注和思考的问题（见图2 ）。 In the process of implementing the reform of “decentralization and management services”, achieving the balance of power, responsibility, and profit is an issue that college purchasing managers must pay attention to and consider (see Figure 2 ). Simplifying administration and decentralization is to give purchasers greater autonomy, but the decentralization of power should be equal to and match responsibilities. The biggest manifestation of procurement benefits is to solve the government procurement system implementation process, because it can not meet special needs or personalized needs. The blame phenomenon, in other words, is the ability to purchase products or services that meet actual needs and are cost-effective.
An important manifestation of the balance and reciprocity of power, responsibility, and profit is to strengthen the main responsibility of the purchaser. However, in the procurement management of colleges and universities, the cognition of the main responsibility of the purchaser is not clear. It is precisely because of the ambiguity and inaccurate positioning that various phenomena such as lack of main responsibility, offside, shoving, etc. occur from time to time. The completion of the procurement work in colleges and universities is not undertaken by a certain department or individual throughout the entire process, but related departments complete different management, coordination, and organization tasks according to the division of school functions. Many projects are also entrusted to social agencies. Therefore, the main body of responsibility of college purchasers cannot be a department or an individual, but a group; when defining specific responsibilities, it is necessary to distinguish between departmental responsibilities and individual responsibilities; departmental functions and job responsibilities must be accurate and clear to facilitate the division of responsibilities .
To establish the main responsibility mechanism of purchasers in colleges and universities, they need to sort out and clarify their responsibility content, responsibility implementation and accountability mechanisms, respectively. As the responsibility bodies of the purchasers of colleges and universities involve many departments and personnel, they play different roles in all aspects of procurement, and it is reasonable to sort out the content of their responsibilities from the procurement process. According to the procurement process, the responsibility is divided into stages, including budget preparation, plan formulation, demand demonstration, procurement implementation, contract signing and performance acceptance. After clarifying the content of the responsibility, the implementation of the main responsibility of the purchaser of the university is mainly controlled and controlled through relevant systems and regulations. The construction of these systems should be closely integrated with the overall system construction of the school. However, the formulation of the system is only the basis for the implementation of responsibility, and effective implementation and organizational implementation are the key to the implementation of the main responsibility. The implementation of the system requires each department in the procurement process to actively understand the spirit of the system documents, advance various tasks in a timely manner, and clarify the division of responsibilities; in the implementation of the system, the system should be continuously summarized, revised and improved in accordance with national policy adjustments and various emergencies. . The inspection and feedback of the implementation of the system also need to establish a mechanism for accountability, so as to truly realize the closed loop of responsibility management.
Practice of Purchasing Management in Universities
“放管服”改革精神的落实还是强化采购人主体责任，最终都要落在管理行为上。 Whether it is the implementation of the spirit of "decentralization of service" reform or the strengthening of the buyer's main responsibility, it must ultimately fall on management behavior. Starting from reality, Nanjing University has carried out useful practices with the help of system construction, information construction, and team building.
(1) Establish rules and regulations and promote standardized management
In recent years, based on the actual situation of the university, Nanjing University revolves around unified leadership of bidding and procurement, reasonable preparation of procurement plans, scientific determination of procurement requirements, strict implementation of government procurement regulations, improvement and improvement of procurement work specifications, in-depth implementation of government procurement policy functions, and complete procurement performance acceptance. A series of documents such as mechanism and perfect internal control were issued to further clarify the boundaries of responsibility in the pre-purchase demonstration, intermediate audit supervision, and post-mortem performance evaluation. After the promulgation of the rules and regulations and a series of documents, supporting flowcharts, business tables, and contract templates were also produced, which provided the implementers with intuitive and logical guidance with clear descriptions and accurate descriptions, which effectively ensured the implementation of the system.
(2) Improve information construction and implement sunshine procurement
“分批建设、逐步对接、服务贯通”的思路，以“单点登录、一键采购”为目标，探索采购速效并行，尝试构建招标采购管理服务全流程一体化平台。 In order to improve procurement efficiency, improve service levels, and realize sunny procurement, Nanjing University is guided by the needs of dual first-class construction and career development, and follows the idea of "batch construction, gradual docking, and service penetration", and "single sign-on, one-click procurement" ”As the goal, explore the quick and parallel procurement, and try to build an integrated platform for the entire process of bidding and procurement management services. 系统、人事系统、组织系统、财务系统、信息门户等实现贯通，“让数据多跑路、师生少跑路”，无需纸质材料流转，所有事项以线上“申请 + 审批”模式完成，极大地方便了师生；开发了快速采购系统，该系统主要针对学校招标采购限额以上、政府采购限额以下项目，通过自动评审、专家评审等方式创新采购，提高效率。 At present, the WeChat public account of the Tendering Office of Nanjing University has been opened. Teachers and suppliers can keep track of the project progress and obtain information at any time through mobile phones, and realize the processing and approval of some business mobile terminals. Understand the entrance to the integrated communication management service platform such as information and business processing; launch the bidding and procurement management system, which is connected with the school OA system, personnel system, organization system, financial system, information portal, etc., "Let the data run more, Teachers and students run less ”, no paper materials need to be transferred, and all matters are completed in the online“ application + approval ”mode, which greatly facilitates teachers and students; developed a rapid procurement system, which is mainly aimed at schools with a purchase quota above the government bid limit For projects below the purchase limit, innovative purchases will be made through automatic review and expert review to improve efficiency.
(3) Strengthen team building and create professional procurement
Management is a human-centered coordinated activity in a social organization to achieve the desired goal. From this perspective, the Nanjing University Tendering Office puts team building at the core and takes multiple measures simultaneously. Starting from the role of procurement workers, it has created a proficient and comprehensive procurement management team. “新员工讲课制”，采用“命题作文”或“自主选题”，促使学习者从被动学习转为主动学习；三是传承者角色，推行“老员工总结制”，老员工从过程管理入手，总结工作过程中的注意事项、相关问题和可能出现的状况，为新员工扫清工作障碍；四是联络者角色，在基本业务技能熟练的基础上，成为与院系、供应商、联络员、代理公司之间的“立交桥”，及时互通有无，有效推进工作开展；五是研究者角色，循着提出问题、分析问题和解决问题的思路，深入探讨和研究业务政策，撰写专业文章，在学习中思考、在思考中总结、在总结中领悟。 The first is the role of learner, starting from two aspects of participating in training and self-learning, to continuously improve the professional quality of the team; the second is the role of sharer. Everyone participating in the training does training sharing within the department and implements the "new employee lecture system" , Using "proposition composition" or "autonomous topic selection" to promote learners from passive learning to active learning; the third is the role of the inheritor, the implementation of "old employees summary system", the old employees start with process management, summarize the work process Precautions, related issues, and possible situations to clear up work obstacles for new employees; Fourth, the role of liaison, on the basis of proficiency in basic business skills, to become a liaison with departments, suppliers, liaisons, and agency companies "Overpass", timely communication between the presence and absence, and effectively promote the work; Fifth, the role of a researcher, in accordance with the train of thought, problem analysis and problem solving, in-depth discussion and research of business policies, writing professional articles, thinking during the study, Summarize in thinking and comprehend in summary. Under the guidance of role development, create a good atmosphere of "learning by doing, learning by doing", "learning by thinking, thinking by thinking", so as to achieve self-learning, self-improvement and self-improvement.
·德鲁克曾经说过：“管理，从根本上讲，意味着用智慧代替鲁莽，用知识代替习惯与传统，用合作代替强制。”高校采购管理工作正处于深改大潮的风口浪尖，这既是机遇，更是挑战。 The famous management guru Peter Drucker once said: "Management fundamentally means replacing wisdom with recklessness, knowledge with habits and traditions, and cooperation with coercion." Purchasing management in colleges and universities is at a tide of profound changes. At the cusp, this is both an opportunity and a challenge. Only by using wisdom, mastering knowledge, and working together can we catch up and push the procurement management of colleges and universities to a new height.
(Author: Tendering Office of Nanjing University)
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