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Experts analyze the national government procurement information statistics in 2018
来源： 中国政府采购报 【 打印 】 September 16, 2019 08:53 Source: China Government Procurement News [ Print ]
■ Our reporter Ji Yan
2018 年全国政府采购规模超 3.5 万亿元，较上年增长 11.7% ，其中，全国服务类采购规模增幅为 35.7% ，分散采购规模占全国政府采购规模 41.5% ，全国强制和优先采购节能、节水产品占同类产品采购规模的 90.1% ，全国优先采购环保产品占同类产品采购规模的 90.2% ，中小企业合同额占比达 76.7% ……这一连串数据承载着怎样的含义，又折射出什么信息？ According to the latest news from the Ministry of Finance, the scale of national government procurement in 2018 exceeded 3.5 trillion yuan, an increase of 11.7% over the previous year . Among them, the scale of national service procurement increased by 35.7% , and the scale of decentralized procurement accounted for 41.5% of national government procurement . The priority purchase of energy-saving and water-saving products accounted for 90.1% of the purchase scale of similar products , the priority purchase of environmentally friendly products nationwide accounted for 90.2% of the purchase scale of similar products , and the contract value of small and medium-sized enterprises accounted for 76.7% ... What does this series of data carry? What information does it reflect? "China Government Procurement News" reporter specially invited government procurement theory and practice experts to analyze these key figures.
■ Pei Yu, Vice President of Nanjing Audit University
■ Zhang Hui, Director, Government Procurement and Performance Management Research Center, Shanghai National Accounting Institute
■ Jiang Aihua, Professor, School of Finance and Taxation, Central University of Finance and Economics
■ Cheng Xiezhong, Professor, School of Law, China University of Political Science and Law
■ Wang Conghu, Professor of National Development and Strategic Research Center and Public Resource Trading Research Center of Renmin University of China
■ Liu Zhiyi, Deputy Director, Government Procurement Division, Anhui Provincial Department of Finance
20% National purchase scale growth rate is below 20% for the first time
35861.4 亿元，较上年增长 11.7% ，自 2015 年以来增幅首次低于 20% 。 In 2018 , the scale of government procurement across the country reached 3,586.14 billion yuan, an increase of 11.7% over the previous year , and for the first time since 2015 , the growth rate was less than 20% .
近年来我国政府采购规模持续增长，与往年相比， 2018 年的增速明显放缓。 Liu Zhiyi: In recent years, the scale of China's government procurement has continued to increase. Compared with previous years , the growth rate in 2018 has slowed down significantly. On the one hand, the transition from high-speed economic growth to high-quality development in China has become the new normal. On the other hand, the increase in fiscal revenue has been greatly affected by tax and fee reductions. This is reflected in government procurement, which is a corresponding decrease in the increase in expenditure arrangements. It is expected that the scale of China's government procurement will be in a steady growth stage in the next few years, and will not show the same increase as in the past.
2018 年政府采购规模增速放缓，主要原因在于近年来我国严格执行八项规定，大幅压缩三公经费支出，特别是近年来各级政府带头过紧日子的思想，用于满足政府自身运转的经费开支压缩，直接带来政府采购规模增速放缓。 Jiang Aihua: The growth rate of government procurement in 2018 has slowed down, mainly due to China's strict implementation of eight regulations in recent years and a significant reduction in the expenditure of three public funds, especially the idea that governments at all levels have taken the lead in the past to meet the government's own operations. The reduction in expenditures has directly brought about a slowdown in the growth rate of government procurement. Obviously, from the perspective of government operation, this change in growth rate is precisely the performance of fiscal expenditure performance improvement.
2018 年的政府采购总体情况属于正常，但增速与往年相比已经放缓，与财政支出规模增速放缓密不可分。 Pei Yu: The general situation of government procurement in 2018 is normal, but the growth rate has slowed down compared with previous years, and it is inseparable from the slowdown in the growth of fiscal expenditure. 2018 年， 1 月 -12 月全国一般公共预算支出 220906 亿元，同比增长 8.7% ；全国政府性基金预算支出 80562 亿元，同比增长 32.1% 。 According to statistics, from January to December 2018 , the general public budget expenditure of the country was 220906 billion yuan, an increase of 8.7% year-on-year ; the budget expenditure of the national government fund was 80562 billion yuan, an increase of 32.1% year-on-year . The correlation between government procurement scale and general public budget expenditure is high, and government fund budgets are second. Therefore, it is normal for the growth rate of government procurement to slow down as a whole; at the same time, changes in government procurement related systems will also have an impact on the growth of procurement scale. A certain degree of impact, but I don't think the impact is too great.
政府采购作为政府预算的执行，如果观察同期全国一般公共预算支出的增速， 2018 年全国一般公共预算支出较上年增长 8.7% ，且自 2016 年以来，全国一般公共预算支出均保持增速逐年加快。 Zhang Hui: Government procurement is the implementation of the government budget. If you observe the growth rate of the general public budget expenditure in the same period, the national general public budget expenditure in 2018 will increase by 8.7% compared with the previous year . Since 2016 , the national general public budget expenditure has maintained The growth rate has accelerated year by year. 2018 年全国一般公共预算支出保持增速递增的情况下，政府采购增速却出现相反的情形，这是否表明，未执行政府采购的财政支出规模在扩大？ By reference, we can draw such a conclusion: in the case that the general public budget expenditure of the whole country keeps increasing in 2018 , the growth rate of government procurement has shown the opposite situation. Does this indicate that the scale of fiscal expenditure that has not implemented government procurement is expanding? ? Government procurement is one of the tools of government macro-control. It naturally carries a series of government macro-policy orientations, but these policy orientations are realized through procurement in the form of influencing the supply and demand relationship of the market. It is a government procurement function, which is reflected in the policy attributes of government procurement. If government procurement cannot form a certain scale, or the relative scale is gradually shrinking, the policy attributes of government procurement must be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to further standardize the implementation of government procurement and expand the scale of government procurement. In particular, the growth rate of government procurement must maintain a certain correlation with the growth rate of fiscal expenditure.
2018 年政府采购规模增幅放缓，除了各级政府过紧日子，还与政府采购领域“放管服”改革的不断推进有关。 The reporter noticed that some people in the industry pointed out that in 2018 , the growth rate of government procurement slowed down. In addition to the tight life of governments at all levels, it was also related to the continuous advancement of the "decentralization of service" reform in the field of government procurement. In recent years, the centralized procurement catalogues at all levels have continued to "thin", and the decentralized procurement quota standards have gradually increased. The number of items not included in the centralized procurement catalogue below the procurement quota standards has increased, and the number of items within the scope of government procurement stipulated by the Government Procurement Law has decreased. This has also led to a "shrinkage" in the scale data included in government procurement statistics.
Proportion of procurement scale in national fiscal expenditure scale hits record low
10.5% ，占 GDP 比重为 4% 。 In 2018 , the national government procurement amount accounted for 10.5% of the national fiscal expenditure and 4% of GDP .
根据国际经验，一般政府采购规模占 GDP 的比重为 10% 左右，占财政支出的比例为 30% 左右。 Pei Yu: According to international experience, the scale of general government procurement accounts for about 10% of GDP and about 30% of fiscal expenditure . It is based on this experience that China's "Government Procurement Law" and "Budget Law" all require standardizing government procurement, strengthening government procurement budget management, and increasing the level of government procurement. GDP 的比重稳中有增，符合人们的预期，至于 2018 年度政府采购规模占财政支出比重有所下降，这与国家强调压缩一般性开支、增加转移性支出尤其是民生性支出有关。 In recent years, the scale of government procurement has increased year by year, and its proportion in GDP has increased steadily , in line with people's expectations. As for the proportion of government procurement in fiscal expenditure in 2018 , this has declined, which is in line with the country's emphasis on reducing general expenditures and increasing transferability. Expenditure is especially relevant to people's livelihood. 2018 年度主要支出项目增长情况就可以印证上述观点，一般公共预算支出中，教育、科技、社会保障和就业、节能环保、城乡社区、债务付息等支出均高于平均增长速度（即 8.7% ）。 The growth of major expenditure items in 2018 can confirm the above view. Of the general public budget expenditures, expenditures on education, science and technology, social security and employment, energy conservation and environmental protection, urban and rural communities, and debt interest payments are all higher than the average growth rate (that is, 8.7%). ).
从财政部公布的数据看，近年来我国政府采购规模持续增长，并且从增长速度看，除了 2014 年政府采购增长速度低于 GDP 增长速度外，其他年份都远高于 GDP 的增长速度，反映出较好的增长态势。 Jiang Aihua: According to the data released by the Ministry of Finance, the scale of government procurement in China has continued to increase in recent years. From the growth rate, except for the growth rate of government procurement in 2014 , which is lower than the GDP growth rate, other years are far higher than the GDP growth rate. Reflects a good growth trend.
In 2018 , the proportion of government procurement in national fiscal expenditure was innovatively low. Using inverse thinking, from a calculation point of view, the reason for this reduction in proportion is nothing more than the reduction in government procurement or the increase in national fiscal expenditure, or both. . However, the scale of government procurement is increasing, so the main reason should be the relatively rapid growth of national fiscal expenditure. So what does the national fiscal expenditure scale include? Why does the scale of fiscal expenditure grow faster? 2012 年 -2015 年财政部公布的数据，在比例的计算中，以“一般公共预算支出规模”作为分母，但从 2016 年开始就扩展到了“全部财政支出规模”。 Regarding the first question, I found that there is a statistical caliber difference here . The data released by the Ministry of Finance from 2012 to 2015 uses the “general public budget expenditure scale” as the denominator in the calculation of the proportion. Expanded to "the scale of total fiscal expenditure". 2015 年 3 月实施《中华人民共和国政府采购法实施条例》，明确政府采购的资金范围为“四本账”而非仅仅是“一般公共预算账户”，因此，从 2016 年后便以全口径的四本账支出规模作为分母，由于分母的扩大， 2016 年这一比例比 2015 年有所下降， 2017 年比例又有所上升，而 2018 年又开始下降。 I think the main reason lies in the implementation of the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Implementation of the Government Procurement Law of March 2015. It is clear that the scope of funds for government procurement is "four books" and not just "general public budget accounts." Therefore, from 2016 Later, the scale of the four books of the full-scale account was used as the denominator. Due to the expansion of the denominator , this ratio decreased in 2016 compared to 2015 , and increased in 2017 , and began to decline in 2018 . 2019 年两会预算报告数据显示， 2018 年，全国一般公共预算支出 220906.07 亿元，增长 8.7% ；全国政府性基金相关支出 80562.07 亿元，增长 32.1% ；全国国有资本经营预算支出 2159.26 亿元，增长 6.7% ；全国社会保险基金支出 64586.45 亿元，增长 32.7% ，剔除机关事业单位基本养老保险后同口径增长 12.7% 。 Further analysis found that the data of the budget reports of the two conferences in 2019 showed that in 2018 , the general public budget expenditure of the country was 220,906.07 billion yuan, an increase of 8.7% ; the national government fund-related expenditure was 8.056207 billion yuan, an increase of 32.1% ; the national state capital operating budget expenditure was 215.926 billion The national social insurance fund expenditure was 64.64545 billion yuan, an increase of 32.7% . After excluding the basic endowment insurance of institutions and institutions, it increased by 12.7% in the same caliber . 2018 年全国财政支出规模的扩大，很大原因在于全国政府性基金相关支出和全国社会保险基金支出增长较快，导致 2018 年政府采购规模占财政支出规模的比重创历史新低。 In terms of scale and growth rate, the expansion of the national fiscal expenditure in 2018 is largely due to the rapid growth of national government fund-related expenditures and national social insurance fund expenditures, resulting in the government procurement scale accounting for a large proportion of fiscal expenditure in 2018. New low.
Therefore, it is suggested that when the proportion of government procurement in fiscal expenditure is announced in the future, it can be announced by account, because the scale of government procurement mainly comes from the funds of the general public budget account, and the nature of the funds in the other three accounts determines the funds that are really suitable for government procurement. The amount is not large, and its general use as the denominator is not conducive to accurate analysis.
The growth rate of service procurement continued to grow rapidly
12081.9 亿元，占全国政府采购规模的 33.7% ，增幅为 35.7% 。 In 2018 , the scale of service procurement was RMB 1,208.19 billion, accounting for 33.7% of the national government procurement scale , an increase of 35.7% .
一方面， 2018 年，货物、工程、服务类采购规模占全国政府采购规模的 22.5% 、 43.8% 和 33.7% ，其中，货物类采购规模为 8065.3 亿元，增幅仅 0.8% ，工程类采购规模为 15714.2 亿元，增幅也仅有 3.3% 。 In the association: On the one hand, in 2018 , the scale of procurement of goods, engineering and services accounted for 22.5% , 43.8% and 33.7% of the national government procurement scale , of which the scale of procurement of goods was 806.53 billion yuan, an increase of only 0.8% . The scale of category purchases was 15.71 billion billion yuan, an increase of only 3.3% . The increase in both of them has been significantly "diving", both hitting a new low in recent years. This has something to do with the procurement departments at all levels actively reducing general expenditures, saving administrative costs, and gradually changing the operating methods of governments at all levels, and the gradual reduction of government departments' administrative needs for tangible entities.
On the other hand, although the scale of national procurement of services last year also decreased compared with previous years, it still maintained a rapid growth trend. 5705.5 亿元和 6376.4 亿元，占服务类采购规模的 47.2% 和 52.8% 。 In service procurement, the government's own services and public services provided by the government to the public were 570.55 billion yuan and 637.64 billion yuan, accounting for 47.2% and 52.8% of the scale of service procurement . Among administrative operating costs, the proportion of service costs has gradually increased. This is an important manifestation of the increasing professionalization and refinement of administrative services. This is also an inevitable result of the marketization and socialization of administrative services. Administrative agencies are increasingly Reliance on social services provided by social subjects; this is also an important manifestation of the transformation of government functions, especially when the proportion of government purchases of public services exceeds the government's own service needs, reflecting the government's increasing contractual delivery of public service production Commit to social forces and promote the improvement of public service quality and efficiency through competition mechanisms. It has transformed the traditional way of direct public service provision by the government, and is an important manifestation of the continuous and in-depth transformation of government functions.
观察近年来政府采购结构变化可以发现，货物类和工程类采购占比均在下降，而服务类采购占比在不断上升，说明一方面存在压缩一般性开支，相应降低货物类和工程类支出比重的情况；另一方面也是政府职能转变的反映，更多转变为服务型，各类行政事业单位采购类支出占比逐年下降，而服务类支出和人员支出比重逐年上升。 Pei Yu: Observing the changes in government procurement structure in recent years, we can find that the proportion of procurement of goods and engineering is declining, while the proportion of procurement of services is increasing, indicating that on the one hand there is a reduction in general expenses and a corresponding reduction in goods and engineering. On the other hand, it is also a reflection of the change in government functions. It is more of a service type. The proportion of procurement expenditures of various administrative institutions has been decreasing year by year, while the proportion of service expenditures and personnel expenditures has been increasing year by year. At the same time, over the years, there have been relatively few large-scale basic constructions of various administrative institutions, and the construction control of buildings and halls has been relatively strict, which has a direct impact on the decline in the proportion of engineering procurement. With the gradual transition of government functions, most of the original self-service expenditures of various administrative institutions have been transformed into expenditures for purchasing services from the society (such as common small maintenance services, conference services, legal services, accounting and audit services, procurement services, etc. Therefore, the substantial increase in the scale of service procurement in recent years is the result of the transformation of government functions.
服务类政府采购所占比重从 2012 年起持续上升，而且在 2017 年发生了颠覆性变化，即服务类政府采购占比首次超过了货物类采购占比，而 2018 年，服务类采购将优势继续扩大，占政府采购的比重比货物类高出了 11 个百分点。 Jiang Aihua: The proportion of service government procurement has continued to rise since 2012 , and has undergone a subversive change in 2017 , that is, the proportion of service government procurement exceeds the proportion of goods procurement for the first time, and in 2018 , service procurement will Advantages continued to expand, accounting for 11 % of government procurement compared to goods . 2013 年以来大力推行政府购买服务改革密切相关。 This aspect is related to the government's reduction of administrative expenditures. On the other hand, it is also closely related to the vigorous implementation of the government procurement service reform since the 18th National Congress of the People 's Republic of China, especially since 2013 .
采购资金不断朝向服务类采购项目，说明政府日益关注和重视涉及民生的服务类采购。 Wang Conghu: The procurement funds continue to be directed at service procurement projects, which shows that the government is paying more and more attention to service procurement involving people's livelihood. 2019 年两会期间回答记者问时提到，民生本身就是天大的事情，要在发展经济的过程当中持续地改善民生，抓住重点难点问题一件一件去做。 State Council Premier Li Keqiang mentioned in a question to reporters during the two sessions in 2019 that people ’s livelihood is a matter of utmost importance. In the process of economic development, people ’s livelihood must be continuously improved, and key and difficult issues must be tackled one by one. This also reflects that the government attaches great importance to people's livelihood issues, guarantees citizens' basic service needs, and strives to develop the tertiary industry to promote the transformation and upgrading of the economic structure.
Public tenders still dominate
70.5% 与 11.8% Public bidding and single-source procurement in 2018 accounted for 70.5% and 11.8% of the national government procurement scale, respectively
2018 年公开招标采购仍占主导地位，单一来源采购规模有所下降。 Liu Zhiyi: In 2018 , public bidding and procurement still dominated, and the scale of single-source procurement declined. 11.6% 。 Among them, the single source of service category accounted for 11.6% of the scale of service procurement . I think there are two main reasons. First, due to insufficient local publicity, the purchaser did not recognize it, and felt that only open tendering was the most fair. In addition, as local inspections have been extended downwards and intensified, in order to ensure that procurement activities are more fair and equitable, open bidding is still the procurement method preferred by purchasers. The second is that competitive negotiation and inquiry procurement methods are limited by their own. Using the lowest price bidding method, it is often difficult to purchase products of good quality, excellent products, and the purchaser is satisfied, so they are abandoned by the purchaser. The proportion of single service sources in the scale of service procurement declined, mainly due to the impact of inspections and the in-depth promotion of anti-corruption. Buyers have sought relationships with people in the past and changed their methods to seek regulatory approval to implement single source procurement. Procurement methods other than source procurement, even those that should have been sourced from a single source, avoid other procurement methods.
公开招标仍占主导地位，一方面说明更多单位重视公开招标，认同公开招标和依赖公开招标方式；另一方面也说明高压反腐、公开透明的政策贯彻落实到位。 Wang Conghu: Public bidding still dominates. On the one hand, it shows that more units attach importance to public bidding, agree with public bidding and rely on public bidding methods; on the other hand, it also shows that high-pressure anti-corruption, open and transparent policies have been implemented. Of course, some unnecessary public bidding has adopted the method of public bidding, which indicates that some departments or leaders are afraid to take responsibility, and then they will shirk their responsibility and avoid the risk of psychology and cognition. The decline in the proportion of single sources indicates that on the one hand more and more units and leaders attach importance to government procurement, respect the procurement laws and laws, and no longer intervene in procurement matters too much; on the other hand, it also shows that market competitiveness is enhanced and economic development is active. It's hard to have a domineering situation.
The proportion of decentralized procurement has increased year by year
41.5% 。 In 2018 , the scale of decentralized procurement accounted for 41.5% of the national government procurement scale .
随着政府采购 “放管服”改革的深入、集采目录的调整，分散性采购规模逐年有所上升，这一现象恰恰说明了三个有关政府采购改革的趋势：一是采购部门或单位对《预算法》《政府采购法》的自觉遵循，集中性采购规模就没有必要集中太多；二是机构改革后，集中采购往往不能及时满足使用部门或单位的采购需求，随着采购规模的逐年增加，有些常规性采购排队时间经常超过3 个月，有的甚至超过半年，为了提高采购效率，将一些常规性采购和特殊需求采购下放给部门或单位，由其自身按照《中华人民共和国政府采购法》的要求实施采购是最有效率的；三是现代科技为分散采购提供了可能，基于云计算、区块链和大数据，分散采购具备可行性，部门或单位可以通过网上商城采购常规性货物、服务（如车票、机票等），并且这些采购行为可以 Pei Yu: With the deepening of government procurement "decentralized service" reform and the adjustment of centralized procurement catalogs, the scale of decentralized procurement has increased year by year. This phenomenon precisely illustrates three trends in government procurement reform: First, the procurement department Or the unit consciously follows the "Budget Law" and "Government Procurement Law", there is no need to focus too much on the scale of centralized procurement. Second, after the institutional reform, centralized procurement often fails to meet the procurement needs of the department or unit in time. The scale has increased year by year. Some regular procurement queues often exceed 3 months, and some even exceed half a year. In order to improve procurement efficiency, some conventional procurement and special needs procurement are devolved to departments or units, and it is up to itself to comply with the "Chinese People" The requirements of the Republic's Government Procurement Law are the most efficient implementation of procurement; the third is that modern technology provides the possibility of decentralized procurement. Based on cloud computing, blockchain and big data, decentralized procurement is feasible. Departments or units can go through online shopping malls. Purchase regular goods and services (such as tickets, air tickets, etc.), and these purchases can Retrospective (the purchase information is unchangeable under the condition of the blockchain), which greatly improves its transparency and reduces the possibility of rent-seeking corruption.
由于近年来我国在政府采购领域不断推进放管服改革，集中采购目录 “瘦身”，分散采购占全部政府采购的比重逐年上升。 In the association: In recent years, China has continuously promoted the reform of decentralized management services in the field of government procurement, and the “downsizing” of the centralized procurement catalogue has increased the proportion of decentralized procurement in all government procurement year by year. This is conducive to fulfilling the responsibilities of the purchaser's purchase subject and guaranteeing the purchaser's autonomy in purchasing; it is also an important manifestation of the continued improvement of China's economic and social development, which shows that China's market competition is becoming more and more abundant, and products that can meet the purchase demand are becoming increasingly abundant; at the same time, it is also an electronic An inevitable consequence of the continuous development of business, purchasers can obtain high-quality and cheap products through various e-commerce government procurement platforms, not necessarily through centralized procurement.
Energy conservation and environmental protection procurement policy continues to work
1653.8 亿元，占同类产品采购规模的 90.1% ；全国优先采购环保产品 1647.4 亿元，占同类产品采购规模的 90.2% 。 In 2018 , the nation's compulsory and priority procurement of energy-saving and water-saving products was 165.38 billion yuan, accounting for 90.1% of the scale of similar products ; the country's priority procurement of environmentally friendly products was 164.74 billion yuan, accounting for 90.2% of the scale of similar products .
节能采购、环保采购政府采购政策已经实施很多年了，采购人、采购代理机构这方面意识逐渐增强。 Liu Zhiyi: Government procurement policies for energy-saving procurement and environmental protection procurement have been implemented for many years, and the awareness of purchasers and procurement agencies has gradually increased. In addition, in recent years, inspections of government procurement agencies have been implemented from the central government to the local government every year. In addition to newly established agencies, the financial department requires rectification or punishment for violations of government procurement agencies that have not implemented energy-saving procurement and environmental protection procurement, thereby basically guaranteeing It stipulates the mandatory purchase or priority purchase of energy-saving and environmental protection products.
尽管全国政府采购规模增幅趋缓，但在支持节能环保等方面，政府采购的作用依然很 “给力”。 Pei Yu: Although the scale of government procurement across the country has slowed, the role of government procurement in supporting energy conservation and environmental protection is still very strong. There are two main reasons. One is the mandatory requirements at the national level. The bidding documents of all procurement departments or units clearly require priority purchase of energy-saving, water-saving or environmentally-friendly products. The second is the induction of benefits, although the prices of energy-saving and environmentally-friendly products are relatively average. The price of the product is high, but it can really save the cost for the user in the process of use. With the advancement of technology, these energy-saving and environmentally-friendly products have a longer service life than ordinary products. Therefore, it can bring real benefits to the user. benefit.
近年来，我国三大攻坚任务之一便是 “污染防治”，这是转变经济增长方式、推进供给侧结构性改革和高质量发展的内涵之一。 Jiang Aihua: In recent years, one of China's three major tasks is "pollution prevention", which is one of the connotations of transforming the mode of economic growth, advancing supply-side structural reforms, and high-quality development. These figures of government procurement precisely show that the process of the function of government procurement policy is also the realization of government functions. Government procurement has contributed to the victory of the "blue sky defense war".
生态文明、节能环保是我国的国家战略，也是当下和今后很长一段时间极力倡导的发展主题。 Wang Conghu: Ecological civilization, energy conservation and environmental protection are China's national strategies, and they are also the development theme that is strongly advocated now and for a long time to come. As an effective policy tool, government procurement has an indispensable position in implementing green development policies, supporting and promoting energy conservation, and the development of environmentally friendly enterprises. It can be predicted that in the future, mandatory procurement of energy-saving and environmental protection products will become the mainstream direction, and energy-saving and environmental protection products will also become the only choice for government procurement.
76.7% 的政采订单 Small, medium and micro enterprises get 76.7% of government procurement orders
27488.6 亿元，占全国政府采购规模的 76.7% ，授予小微企业合同金额为 11941 亿元，占授予中小微企业合同金额的 43.4% 。 In 2018 , the contract value awarded to small, medium and micro enterprises by government procurement in the country was 2,748.86 billion yuan, accounting for 76.7% of the national government procurement scale, and the contract value awarded to small and micro enterprises was 1,194.1 billion yuan, accounting for 43.4% of the contract value awarded to small, medium and micro enterprises .
中小企业数量占中国企业总量的 90% ，随着政府采购规模的逐年增长，授予中小企业的采购额自然会增长，加之在《政府采购促进中小企业发展暂行办法》中明确采取预留采购份额、降低门槛、价格扣除、鼓励联合体投标和分包等具体措施促进中小企业的发展。 Pei Yu: The number of SMEs accounts for 90% of the total number of Chinese enterprises . As the scale of government procurement grows year by year, the amount of procurement granted to SMEs will naturally increase. In addition, the Interim Measures for Promoting the Development of SMEs by Government Procurement have clearly adopted Specific measures such as retaining procurement shares, lowering thresholds, price deductions, encouraging bidding and subcontracting for the Commonwealth to promote the development of SMEs. As a result, SMEs' access to government procurement quotas has grown relatively faster. Specifically, SMEs are mainly distributed in the areas of daily supply of goods, services and projects required by various administrative institutions. They are flexible, convenient and efficient. After more than a decade of government procurement practice tests, SME suppliers can The daily procurement needs of such administrative institutions. Therefore, it is reasonable for the requirements of policies and the initiative of SMEs to increase government procurement quotas year by year.
支持中小微企业发展是政府采购的一项重要政策功能，其对于维护有效的公平竞争，扶持中小企业成长具有重要意义。 Chengxiezhong: Supporting the development of small, medium and micro enterprises is an important policy function of government procurement, which is of great significance for maintaining effective fair competition and supporting the growth of SMEs. The ever-expanding amount of contracts awarded to small and medium-sized enterprises by government procurement on the one hand reflects that the policy functions to support the development of small and micro-enterprises have been implemented in China's government procurement practices; on the other hand, it also reflects that the market competitiveness of small and micro-enterprises has continued to increase . Small and micro enterprises are playing an increasingly important role in meeting the diversified purchasing needs of buyers.
支持中小企业乃至小微企业的发展，是实施政府采购制度的国家或地区的典型做法，我国近年来，通过给小微企业预留预算、价格优惠以及给小微企业发放购买服务券等多种方式支持小微企业发展，这也是优化营商环境的一个表现。 Jiang Aihua: Supporting the development of SMEs and even small and micro enterprises is a typical practice in countries or regions that implement the government procurement system. In recent years, China has reserved budgets, preferential prices for small and micro enterprises, and issued service vouchers to small and micro enterprises. Various ways to support the development of small and micro enterprises are also a manifestation of optimizing the business environment.
(Author: Zan Yan)
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